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One of the most famous preachers of the pre-Islamic era

Rhetoric in the pre-Islamic era reached a very high status, so the Arabs used rhetoric on almost all occasions, so poetry was always followed in sermons, just like every tribe needed a poet, they recorded their merit, and mocked the enemy. He collected their sayings in disputes, as he said in the name of the tribe in any clan gathering in the various military, social and religious fields.

Rhetoric in the pre-Islamic era
Dr. Abdul-Jalil Abdo Shalabi said in his talk about the speech (The Khatib’s General Speech and its preparation):

Before Islam, tribal disputes and Arab surprises were recorded, which made him think about the universe and call for taking into account events and facts.

Therefore, the speech of the Arabs before Islam is socially necessary, and despite the loss of most of the discourse, we have no choice but to improvise short speeches in various forums and occasions.

However, what remains in the sermon is their present and past history, as well as the sap of Arab knowledge and experience, but it did not rise to the rank of poetry and the highest position among the Arabs. Because it is he who raised the name of the tribe among the people.

Therefore, Abu Omar bin Allah said: “Poets used to appear before the missionaries before the Islamic era because the large number of their demand for poetry limited their achievements, and they exaggerated their affair, and their enemies and invaders were exaggerated. They fear their knights and a large number of them. While poets fear others and watch their poets.

Al-Jahiz also commented on this subject, and said that the status of poets among the Arabs is higher than that of preachers, but after the abundance of poets and the richness of poetry, talented missionaries became Arabs, and they became more prominent. It has become a large number, and its meaning has been copied, and here we consider the words of Antarah ibn Shaddad:

The preaching became overnight at the request of the masters and everyone who spoke in dialects in major forums and official gatherings of the Arabs, so they distinguished themselves in judgment and accompanied noble meanings such as courage, generosity and chivalry. Praise the leader.


The breadth of the functional space of rhetoric is the condition that gives priority to rhetoric. In addition to the usual ancient purposes, missionaries also competed with poets with pride and derision.

Except for missionaries calling for peace and trying to stamp out the fire of war in feuds between feuding tribes, poets only call for death, destruction, and war.

Reasons for rhetoric in the era of ignorance
Each literary, artistic or creative genre has its own reasons for its emergence and development, otherwise it would not be so.

The missionaries met in many theaters (not in the modern sense) and worked on each other, flaunting sublime lineage or meanings, sometimes clashing with each other, giving rise to a long debate, repeating each encounter.
Disagreements and conflicts between the Arabs are many. If the war ends, the missionaries encourage them and resort to fighting, and if they succeed in peace, the missionaries are the ones who preach peace and spread the spirit. Feelings between the two tribes.
The principalities of Manhatra and the Ghassanids are very close, and missions sent to them often need missionaries.
Expanded the field of speeches and became the missionary agent suitor. The girl’s family should preach, and in this lesson, in addition to showing courage, he enumerates the good qualities, lineage and honor of the suitor.
Characteristics of rhetoric in the pre-Islamic era
Preaching in the pre-Islamic era differs from other later eras, and it has many characteristics, the most important of which are:

Smooth methods were used in sermons of peace between forums and major tribes, but missionaries embroidered sermons and intonations and modified them, and deliberately sermons to attract and attract the public’s attention. Abu Omar bin Alaa said: “The Arabs used to listen to it long and short on remembrance.”
Graphic images are not used in the sermon.
Stay away from long sentences and prefer short sentences.
Decorate the speech with ancient rulings and famous proverbs.
There is a variety of styles between news and architectural styles.
In general, the idea of ​​participation is clear.
Language completeness, removal of words and quality of phrases.
The missionary could not fulfill Assen’s request, but it was not excessive.
The length of the sermon depends on the topic and location of the sermon.
Who is the oldest preacher in the pre-Islamic era?
In the pre-Islamic era, many preachers became famous, and we certainly cannot rely on them:

Utbah bin Rabia.
Dimla bin Dimlah.
Amr bin Kulthum.
Labeed bin Rabi’ah
Qais bin Kharga bin Sinan.
Khuwaylid bin Amr (sermon on the day of dawn).
Hanzala bin Dirar (a missionary from the Benidaba tribe)
The claw of happiness.
Types of literary lectures in the pre-Islamic era
Of course, Arabs do not understand literature in the modern sense, but it has its status and type, and its type changes with the variety of occasions and advocacy purposes. The most important types of participation:

They are sermons delivered in a state of peace between tribes, and sermons accepted after war. Their job is to make the audience think about the moral virtues and think about what the preacher is trying to do in the course of his life. He leads his people to think about the inevitable outcome for humanity.

wedding engagement
It represents the height of social progress in the Arab countries and represents a form of human communication. Go out and inform the preacher. Family preaching that is accepted or accepted.

Experience sermons
Sometimes it is called “paradoxical preaching”. The meaning of the two is almost the same, which is intended to flaunt people’s virtues and lineage. Among the competing speeches was the confrontation between Amer bin Tufail and Al-Qamamah bin Allath for the presidency.

Congratulatory sermons
The mourning sermon is to express congratulations on all the happy moments in Arab life when the virtues and virtues of the dead are mentioned.

peace sermon
When the war between adversaries ends with peace, the evangelist plays a role that eliminates the animosity between quarrels and spreads peace. One of the most famous missionaries in Islam is Aksim bin Safi.

war speech
When the voice of rational thinking was overshadowed by tribal tensions and conflicts between tribes, the role of missionaries began to alienate people, encourage them to fight and remind them of the pride of the tribe.. Sometimes the missionary reminded his people of the lofty values. And asceticism and the courage to die.

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